The focus of the security rule is to the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of electronic protected health information (ePHI) that the Yale University covered components creates, accesses, transmits or receives.
ePHI is any Protected Health Information (PHI) which is stored, accessed, transmitted or received electronically. Hence, the “e” at the beginning of ePHI.
Confidentiality is the assurance that ePHI data is shared only among authorized persons or organizations.
Integrity is the assurance that ePHI data is not changed unless an alteration is known, required, documented, validated and authoritatively approved. Most important to HIPAA, data integrity ensures that we can rely on data in making medical decisions. It is an assurance that the information is authentic and complete, and that the information can be relied upon to be sufficiently accurate for its purpose.
Availability is the assurance that systems responsible for delivering, storing and processing critical ePHI data are accessible when needed, by those who need them under both routine and emergency circumstances.
Privacy vs. Security
HIPAA regulations cover both security and privacy. Security and privacy are distinct, but related.
- The Privacy rule focuses on the right of an individual to control the use of his or her personal information. Protected health information (PHI) should not be divulged or used by others against their wishes. The Privacy rule covers the confidentiality of PHI in all formats including electronic, paper and oral. Confidentiality is an assurance that the information will be safeguarded from unauthorized disclosure. The physical security of PHI in all formats is an element of the Privacy rule. See Guidelines for Physical Security: Paper Medical Records and PHI in All Formats.
- The Security rule focuses on administrative, technical and physical safeguards specifically as they relate to electronic PHI (ePHI). Protection of ePHI data from unauthorized access, whether external or internal, stored or in transit, is all part of the security rule.